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No. 51. THE GREEK ENERGY SECTOR: TENDENCIES AND ASCERTAINMENT (in Greek)

Published in REPORTS

N. Manolas. 2007. | ISBN: 978-960-341-073-7

 

The main purpose of this work is to describe the existing situation of Energy Sector in Greece, to export useful ascertainment and tendencies and to engrave policies energy and environmental policy for Greece, in the frames of the energy and environmental policy of European Union (E.U -15). In this study are examined:

The contribution of Greek Energy Sector and its components {Electricity market, Oil market, Natural Gas market and Renewable Energy Sources (R.E.S)} to the Greek Economy, that is to say his direct contribution to GNP, Employment, Price Index, Investments, total debt, and the guarantees of State for the contracting of loans etc,

The comparison of certain energy indices with the respective (similar) sizes in the countries of European Union (EU-15), as are the energy intensity, the energy dependence, the per capita consumption of energy, the emissions of pollutants per unit of produced energy and per unit of produced product. Consequently they are proposed solutions for improvement of Greek energy indicators, as are the reduction of energy intensity, the reduction of energy dependence (substitution of imported energy sources with increase of production of domestic sources of energy, of infiltration of Natural gas in the Greek Economy, growth of Renewable Energy Sources-RES), and the reduction of emissions of gases of greenhouse and more specifically the emission of dioxide of coal. (Protocol of Kyoto)


It is also stressed that the openness of the Electricity market as well as the openness of Natural Gas Market (and Oil), according to the directives of European Union will have as result the appreciable increase of productivity of work in these markets, and the improvement of prosperity of all consumers (industrial and domestic consumers). 
In the first Chapter is developed, at great length, the so called Balance of Greek Energy Sector and the degree of energy dependence and energy intensity of Greece, in comparison with countries of E.U. - 15. In this chapter it is realised on one side that Greece presents high degree of energy dependence, and is proposed the substitution of certain energy resources (mainly oil) with the discovery and exploitation of domestic sources of energy, as are the so called renewable energy sources (RES), and on the other hand diachronic increase of emissions of gases. Is also proposed co-ordination of reception of measures, simultaneously, and no independently, by all sectors that are involved in the energy sector of economy, in order to achieve the biggest possible and desirable result.


In the second Chapter is studied the Electricity Market, that is almost still monopolized by the Public Power Corporation (P.P.C), and which because of the vertical integration that presents, constitutes big obstacle for the openness of the Electricity Market, in Greece. (The investments of new productive units from new producers are considered high danger and are not financed by the banking system). For the cover of moreover domestic needs in electricity in periods of peak, but also in cases of crises, is necessarily judged the development of interconnections of network of Public Power Corporation (P.P.C), with the networks of neighbouring countries, the Western European networks, as well as with the networks of Black Sea.


The Oil Market is the subject of the second component of Greek energy Sector and is the third Chapter. The high degree of oil dependence of Greece continues existing, is erased however this constant tendency of substitution of energy resource mainly with Natural Gas. The HELLENIC PETROLEUM COMPANY (EL.PE) possesses dominating position in the refinement of oil, and it does not exist competition in the sector of refinement, since the quantities that are put in the internal market are almost constant each year, for the last 8 years, and the ex-refinery prices are almost practically identical, while this (competition) is developed in the sector of marketing (retail sales). Impulse in the development of domestic offer of petroleum products is expected that will give the anticipated construction OF THE PIPELINE Bourgas-Alexandroupolis, which it will strengthen considerably the energy supply of Greece. The work is considered that it has wider importance as centre of transmission but also as alternative source of oil for the Greek market


The production and infiltration of imported Natural Gas concern the fourth Chapter. The infiltration of Natural Gas, however, continues being in the earlier stage and his use it is monopolized almost by the Public Power Corporation (P.P.C) and certain big industrial units. The domestic use is found in marginal point, because mainly the problems of direct access in this energy source. 
It must be pointed out that since all the markets (electricity, oil and natural gas) are connected from each other (between them), the openness of the electricity market will encourage the growth of the natural gas market which consequently will offer serious possibilities of substitution of products of oil. Thus, that decisions are received it will be supposed they are coordinated and they are examined as for their total energy repercussion


Objective of fifth Chapter is to elect the importance of Renewable Energy Sources (RES), as alternative case, in the impasses, mainly in environmental subjects that they present the three mentioned before energy sources of sector. Restrictive factors for the further infiltration of alternative forms of energy (RES) are considered the bureaucratic hindrances and the lacks of general infrastructures. For this reason becomes essential the construction of the necessary work of transport of electric energy (new or additional).


Finally the present study differs from other similar studies that circulate (cf. Bibliography) in that faces, for first time, globally and at his components the subject of energy sector in Greece (energy balance, electricity market, oil market, natural gas market and finally the renewable or soft forms of energy). Also this study measures the direct repercussions of energy sector in macroeconomic sizes of Greek Economy (product, employment, investments, price index, etc), dedicates important department in the growth of environmental subjects that is created by the use of energy resources and it proceeds in statistics, and not only, comparisons in on part subjects so much with the on part countries that also with the total of European Union the 15.